Evidence

Alerts

The latest important research summarised

Short summaries of the latest health research presented in plain English to promote use of research by all members of society.

Alert

Fish oil supplements are ineffective for treating dry eyes

Omega-3 fatty acids or ‘fish oil’ supplements are no more effective than inactive olive oil capsules for relieving dry eye disease. Some patients take fish oil supplements for this common problem, but this new evidence suggests that they consider alternatives. Dry eye disease is a common long-term inflammatory condition causing discomfort, and disturbances including blurred ...

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Oral ibuprofen may be an option for closing patent ductus arteriosus in premature babies

A high dose of oral ibuprofen was more likely to close a patent ductus arteriosus in premature babies when compared with standard doses of intravenous ibuprofen or indometacin. Before birth, a baby's lungs aren't needed for breathing. Most blood bypasses the lungs through a large vessel called the ductus arteriosus directly from the pulmonary artery ...

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Opioid drugs are no better than standard painkillers for long-term back and joint pain

People with long-term back pain, or osteoarthritis of their hips or knees, do not get better pain relief from opioid drugs and are more likely to get side effects than those who take paracetamol or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), like naproxen or ibuprofen. A US study assigned 240 patients to either opioid or non-opioid pain ...

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Cartoons are promising for reducing dental anxiety in children

Cartoons delivered on laptops, projectors or 3D goggles with sound can help distract anxious children who fear dental procedures. Dental anxiety can prevent children from attending the dentist for care, and this type of distraction could offer a useful tool to help them. This review looked at a range of audiovisual approaches tested in trials ...

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Yoga-based exercise can improve well-being for older people

Yoga-based exercise offers a safe and accessible way to improve health-related quality of life and mental well-being for people over 60. Evidence for a moderate benefit of yoga in later life now extends beyond improved balance and flexibility. Yoga includes stretches, poses, breathing routines and meditation. This review focused on the physical exercise/activity components. Most ...

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Group-based diet and exercise programmes can lead to weight loss

The evidence is growing that group-based weight loss programmes can offer effective and acceptable options for overweight people, particularly men. On average, people in group dietary advice and exercise programmes lose 3.5kg more than non-participants by six months – a modest 4% weight loss overall but less than the 5% that is often regarded as ...

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Cannabis derivative may reduce seizures in some severe drug-resistant epilepsies, but adverse events increase

In people with some types of severe, drug-resistant epilepsy, adding cannabidiol to their treatment may reduce seizure frequency and improve quality of life compared with a placebo. The likelihood of being free from seizures for more than a year was still low, about 8%. However, an additional 12% of people had serious adverse effects with ...

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Balanced electrolyte solutions give marginal benefit over saline for very ill patients

About 14% of critically ill patients receiving electrolyte-balanced crystalloids either developed kidney failure, needed kidney-replacement therapy or died compared with 15% receiving normal saline. This small but statistically significant benefit was only apparent when combining outcomes; there was no difference between fluids for the three individual outcomes analysed separately. A solution of 0.9% sodium chloride ...

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Early, intense rehabilitation helps recovery after serious traumatic head injury

Early, intensive rehabilitation aids recovery and improves outcomes for people with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury. A review of 11 studies found that starting rehabilitation early, while people were still in intensive care, or offering more intensive treatments helped patients with brain injury regain function compared with usual care. Early rehabilitation often included multisensory ...

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Fewer side-effects and similar benefits from shorter chemotherapy after bowel cancer surgery

A three-month course of chemotherapy after surgery for bowel cancer seems no less effective than the standard six-month course, and half as many people suffered from nerve damage as a side-effect. Three-quarters of people survived to three years without disease progression on either treatment. This international trial, part funded by the NIHR, included over 6,000 ...

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