Evidence

Alerts

The latest important research summarised

Short summaries of the latest health research presented in plain English to promote use of research by all members of society.

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Fewer side-effects and similar benefits from shorter chemotherapy after bowel cancer surgery

A three-month course of chemotherapy after surgery for bowel cancer seems no less effective than the standard six-month course, and half as many people suffered from nerve damage as a side-effect. Three-quarters of people survived to three years without disease progression on either treatment. This international trial, part funded by the NIHR, included over 6,000 ...

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Single routine offer of a blood test for prostate cancer did not save lives

Offering all men aged 50 to 69 a single, screening prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test did not prevent deaths from prostate cancer. This large trial included 573 UK general practices and over 400,000 men. It found that men who were invited to have a PSA test were 19% more likely to be diagnosed with prostate ...

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Balance of long-term benefits and risks of caesarean delivery explained

Caesarean delivery has immediate known benefits and risks for those women who need help in childbirth. This review measures the long-term outcomes for the mothers’ health, the links to a higher risk of childhood illness and the chance of problems with future pregnancies. The large review of 80 studies from high-income countries used data from ...

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Mesh repair of small umbilical hernias reduces recurrence compared to sutures

Repairing small umbilical hernias with surgical mesh rather than sutures reduces the chance of the hernia returning. Complications such as wound infection and pain are not affected by the type of repair. Adults with umbilical hernias need surgery to prevent serious bowel complications. There are no guidelines about how to best to treat them. In ...

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Aspirin may be a follow-on option to prevent blood clots, starting five days after hip or knee surgery

In a recent trial, switching to low-dose aspirin was just as effective at preventing blood clots after joint replacement surgery as continuing the anti-clotting drug rivaroxaban. Six per 1,000 people taking aspirin experienced a blood clot, compared with seven per 1,000 taking rivaroxaban. Three to five per 1,000 patients experienced major bleeding with either drug. ...

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Prescribing anti-inflammatories for urine infection reduces antibiotic use but increases complication risk

Urinary tract infection symptoms resolved by three days for 80% of women given antibiotics compared with 54% given anti-inflammatories. Anti-inflammatories reduced antibiotic use, but 5% of women developed more severe infection of the kidneys. Urinary infections are the second most common reason for prescribing antibiotics in general practice, after respiratory infection. As such, this use ...

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Low fat or low carbohydrate diets seem just as effective for weight loss

Overweight to obese adults who followed a low fat or low carbohydrate diet for 12 months both lost around 5 or 6kg in body weight. It made no difference whether they had a gene-type indicating that they break down fats or carbohydrates better. Obesity is a major public health concern and there are many weight-loss ...

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Plastic wraps or bags keep pre-term infants warm immediately after birth

Cheap and simple plastic wrapping used in the first 10 minutes after birth helps pre-term and low birth weight infants avoid hypothermia. Infants treated in this way are likely to be warmer when admitted to neonatal intensive care than those treated according to standard care. Pre-term infants are most likely to benefit. Routine infant care ...

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Vaccination likely to reduce influenza in healthy children

In healthy children aged two to 16, vaccines are likely to reduce laboratory-confirmed cases of influenza and may reduce the risk of influenza-like illness compared to placebo. Seven children need to receive the live vaccine to prevent one case of confirmed influenza. Twenty children need to be vaccinated to prevent one case of influenza-like illness. ...

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People maintain increases in physical activity three years after receiving pedometers

Middle-aged to older adults given pedometers and a walking programme as part of two NIHR trials continued to be active three years later. In one trial they were walking around 650 extra steps a day. In both trials, they spent about 30 minutes per week extra in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity compared to controls. Brisk walking ...

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