Evidence

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The latest important research summarised

Short summaries of the latest health research presented in plain English to promote use of research by all members of society.

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Adrenaline can restart the heart but is no good for the brain

Treating cardiac arrests with adrenaline during resuscitation by paramedics slightly increases survival compared with placebo. Though adrenaline initially helped restore circulation in a third of cases, 3.2% of people survived to 30 days compared to 2.4% of people in the placebo group. Severe brain damage was nearly twice as likely in those who survived after ...

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Endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) surgery more beneficial for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms than open repair

EVAR surgery to repair a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm had a slightly better survival rate after three years than open repair surgery. The survival benefit in this trial wasn’t apparent 30 days after surgery, but those having EVAR did recover more quickly and went home sooner. This NIHR-funded study also found that EVAR is likely ...

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People with osteoarthritis can benefit from exercise but may harbour myths about safety

Programmes that show people with osteoarthritis how to exercise safely may slightly improve pain scores, self-belief and social function, but participants also report the myth that discomfort while exercising indicates on-going harm. The review combines evidence from 21 randomised controlled trials evaluating exercise in hip or knee osteoarthritis with 12 studies where people receiving the ...

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Cognitive behavioural therapy could benefit adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

Cognitive behavioural therapy improves the core symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults, compared with a range of other treatments. This Cochrane review found a general trend for improvements in inattention, hyperactivity and impulsiveness, especially when therapy was combined with medication. The review included trials that compared cognitive behavioural therapy to other specific ...

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UK-wide study reveals a pattern of delay in referrals to specialist end-of-life care

Referrals to hospice-based specialist palliative care occur closer to death in older than in younger people and in those without cancer. Existing evidence shows that some people near the end of life have a better quality of life and symptom control if they receive specialist palliative care. This research highlights the need to better understand ...

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Daily low-dose antibiotics halve urinary tract infections in people who self-catheterise

People who perform clean intermittent self-catheterisation can reduce symptomatic urinary tract infections from two per year to one by taking daily low-dose antibiotics. This NIHR-funded trial randomised 404 adults in the UK who perform the procedure for a variety of reasons to either daily oral low-dose antibiotics or no prophylaxis. All had a recent history ...

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‘Virtual wards’ reduce readmissions in people after hospitalisation for heart failure

People with heart failure who receive care via virtual wards following discharge from hospital have lower rates of heart failure-related readmission and death than people discharged to other types of care. However, virtual wards did not show similar benefits when offered to people leaving hospital with other high-risk chronic diseases. This systematic review included randomised ...

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A fifth of people, who have no improvement on antidepressants at four weeks, respond if given more time

An adult with acute depression not yet responding to an antidepressant drug has a 1 in 5 chance of substantial symptom reduction between 5 and 8 weeks if they continue taking it. In those unresponsive after eight weeks, 1 in 10 will respond between 9 and 12 weeks. Changing treatment plans too early can mean ...

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Music can reduce pain and anxiety following surgery

Recorded music played before, during or after surgery in adults reduces self-reported post-operative pain and anxiety, compared with usual care. The average effect is equivalent to a reduction in anxiety of 21 percentage points and a 10 percentage point reduction in pain within a few days of surgery. It is thought that placebo and distraction ...

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Factors in men’s choice of active surveillance for low-risk prostate cancer

Many personal, organisational and national factors can help or hinder men from choosing active surveillance over radical treatment when they have low-risk prostate cancer. Men are more likely to adhere to this plan of regular monitoring if they and their families are fully informed and understand that it includes the option of further treatment if ...

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