Evidence
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Early suppression of male hormones is better than delayed therapy for advanced prostate cancer on balance

Offering early hormone suppression therapy to men with advanced prostate cancer that is causing no symptoms improves outcomes compared with waiting until symptoms of cancer spread arise. Early treatment is associated with 23 to 57 fewer deaths per 1,000 men over five years, depending on the men’s baseline risk. However, this comes with an increased ...

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Diagnosis of delirium in hospitals can be improved by the 4 A’s test

A new shorter test for delirium appears helpful in assessing older people in hospital who may have the condition. A normal score on the 4 A’s test effectively rules out delirium while an abnormal score is reasonably useful for detecting the condition. People detected by the test would still need a full assessment to confirm ...

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C-reactive protein testing in general practice safely reduces antibiotic use for COPD flare-ups

Use of a rapid C-reactive protein (CRP) blood test in general practice for people with a flare-up of COPD reduces the proportion who take antibiotics over the next month by about 20 percentage points compared with usual care alone. The reduction in antibiotic use does not lead to worse health, more visits to the doctor ...

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Enhanced communication and staff training could improve the experience of maternity services for asylum-seeking women

Pregnant asylum seekers experience significant barriers to accessing maternity services in the UK. A review found that these barriers often relate to language differences and practical challenges associated with their status. Provision of interpreter services and training for health care professionals could improve maternity support for these women. Pregnant women seeking asylum have often experienced ...

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Text message reminders increase attendance at NHS health checks

Sending text messages reminding people to book their NHS health check following their invitation letter increases attendance. There is little evidence to support pre-notification text messages telling people an invitation would soon be sent. NHS health checks are offered to adults aged 40 to 74 years. Identification and management of cardiovascular risk factors has been ...

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Diet and physical activity interventions targeting children and youth have different, yet small, effects on preventing obesity

Obesity prevention interventions which include both diet and physical activity may reduce the risk of obesity in pre-school children. Once at school, physical activity appears to be more effective for weight loss than diet alone. Resulting weight loss form any intervention, if any, has been very small with unclear benefits to the individual or population. ...

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Transcatheter aortic valve implantation may be an option for patients with aortic stenosis at lower surgical risk

Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI), the less-invasive procedure, may be associated with a reduced risk of death and stroke for up to two years when compared with surgical aortic valve replacement for adults with severe narrowing of the aortic valve, irrespective of the level of surgical risk. TAVI is already an established procedure for those ...

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A lower drink-drive limit in Scotland is not linked to reduced road traffic accidents as expected

Lowering the drink-drive blood alcohol limit in Scotland was not followed by reduced road traffic accidents, perhaps because of a lack of enforcement. While there was a 0.7% reduction in alcohol bought in pubs and restaurants after the new legislation (on-trade sales), there was no significant change in sales of alcohol from shops or supermarkets ...

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A temporary clot-catching filter inserted after major trauma does not prevent lung clots

In adults after major trauma who cannot safely be given anti-clotting drugs, placing a removable metal filter in a major vein to the heart (the inferior vena cava) within 3 days of admission does not reduce their chances of having a clot in their lungs (pulmonary embolus) within 90 days, compared with having no filter. ...

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Exercise training improves physical capacity after lung cancer surgery

People who receive exercise training following surgery for lung cancer can walk about 57 metres further in six minutes than controls who did not exercise. After surgery like this to remove all or part of a lung, people typically manage about 500 metres in six minutes on the test, and anything above 20 metres is considered ...

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