Evidence
Alert

Infants anaesthetised without placing a tube in the trachea have fewer adverse breathing events

Adverse breathing events are about three times more common when using endotracheal tubes than laryngeal mask airways for infants under 12 months receiving non-urgent surgery. Airway problems are common during anaesthesia in children, accounting for three quarters of critical incidents and a third of cardiac arrests. They are more frequent in younger children, especially infants ...

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Group therapy may help a few extra people quit smoking, if other methods fail

Smokers who receive six to eight sessions of a group behaviour treatment were almost twice as likely to quit as those using self-help programmes. However this represents only about four extra successes in every 100 who try. The quit rates after individual advice or brief support were very similar, but adding nicotine replacement gum and ...

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Financial incentives do not increase attendance for diabetic eye screening

Two types of financial incentives are not effective at increasing attendance at eye screening for people with diabetes who do not regularly attend screening. Surprisingly, financial incentives may even reduce the numbers of people attending screening. Retinopathy is a type of eye disease common to people with diabetes. Sight deteriorates only in the later stages ...

Themed Review

Advancing Care - Research with care homes

There are more than twice as many people living in care homes in England and Wales, than there are people staying in hospital. Yet we know far more about effective treatments in hospital and less about what works most effectively to improve care for older people in care homes. Research in care homes is a ...

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New evidence for lower blood pressure targets

Risk of stroke and heart attack decreases with lower systolic blood pressure such as 120 mmHg and 130 mmHg compared with a higher level of 160 mmHg. Lower target pressures are associated with an increased risk of serious adverse events like fainting. The target with the best balance between efficacy and safety in this research ...

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Three psychological therapies are effective for adolescent depression

For adolescents with unipolar major depression, there was no difference in self-reported depressive symptoms or cost-effectiveness after 18 months for cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), short-term psychoanalytic psychotherapy and brief psychological intervention. This was a large NIHR funded trial of three evidence-based psychological therapies often used in the NHS alongside medication or without it. Teenagers from ...

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An emergency department protocol to restore circulation doesn’t improve outcomes in septic shock

A protocol called early goal-directed therapy (EGDT) begun in the emergency department, did not reduce mortality compared with usual care for people with septic shock. The six hour treatment protocol aims to restore circulation for people with septic shock based on treatments that progress in a structured sequence before admission to intensive care. The protocol ...

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Doxycycline may be a safer first option for treating a blistering skin condition

Doxycycline (an established antibiotic) may be a safer first option than the standard steroid treatment for people with the autoimmune skin condition bullous pemphigoid. The condition causes severe, itchy blistering. This NIHR-funded study showed that people started on doxycycline were 19% less likely to have severe, life-threatening or fatal events during the next 12 months ...

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Breaking multiple unhealthy habits all at once has modest impact, but not always…

Tackling unhealthy lifestyles can lead to modest improvements in diet, physical activity and smoking behaviours. But in a few studies, trying to change smoking alongside diet or physical activity appeared to be less effective than if these were tackled sequentially. Many people in the UK have two or more unhealthy habits that significantly increase their ...

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A focus on treating fever does not improve survival in sepsis

Specifically treating fever in adults with sepsis did not reduce the number of people dying within 28 days. It also had no effect on the frequency of hospital-acquired infections, reversing septic shock, lowering heart rate or improving breathing. Sepsis is a rare complication of an infection. Among the 123,000 people a year in England who ...

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