Evidence
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Talking therapy given by parents shows promise for childhood anxiety disorders

Brief guided cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) delivered by parents was as good as a commonly used treatment, delivered by a therapist, in improving anxiety levels in children. Anxiety continued to improve after the end of treatment and by six months about 70% had recovered. The brief CBT was potentially the more cost-effective option. This NIHR-funded ...

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Online parental training may help to improve behaviour in children

Online parental training led to reasonable improvements in behaviour problems in children and young people, compared to no training. The findings of this review suggest that additional support and contact – such as “check-in” calls and on-line forums – can help to increase participation. Online training had similar outcomes to face-to-face training. The review identified ...

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Fluoride varnish every six months helps protect children’s permanent teeth from decay

Fluoride varnish and fissure sealant are equally good at preventing tooth decay on children’s first permanent back teeth when applied to six or seven year olds in South Wales. Six applications of fluoride varnish were less expensive, by about £68 per child, for the NHS at 36 months compared to applying the more expensive fissure ...

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Mechanical clot removal for stroke reduces disability at two years

Timely mechanical removal of the blood clots from inside vessels in the brain after a stroke reduces disability and improves quality of life at two years compared with usual care. Over a third of those in the thrombectomy group had good functional outcome compared with less than a quarter of the standard care group who ...

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Prescribing regular drugs to prevent febrile convulsions risks more harm than benefit

The benefits of giving anti-epileptic medication to children aged between six months and seven years who have had a convulsion while feverish, do not outweigh the harms. While diazepam given when a child becomes feverish reduced the chance of a convulsion from about 25% to 18% after a year, one in three children experienced adverse ...

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Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common mental health condition where everyday life is disrupted by intrusive thoughts and often repetitive rituals to cope with them, such as excessive hand washing or checking whether doors are locked. This makes it difficult to lead a normal life and is costly to the sufferer and wider society, ...

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Treatments for reducing menopausal hot flushes are ranked for effectiveness

A combination of oestrogen and progestogen via patches is the best treatment for menopause symptoms. Other options may be less beneficial, including tablets combining oestrogen and progestogen, and non-hormonal treatments, isoflavones and black cohosh, though they may have other benefits. There is no evidence to support the use of antidepressants. Menopause affects women’s personal life ...

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Regional anaesthesia could improve fistula function for kidney dialysis

Use of regional anaesthesia when creating a fistula for vascular access may reduce the risk of failure by about 70%. Easy access to blood vessels is important when someone needs kidney dialysis and the commonest procedure is forming of an artificial link between arteries and veins, called a fistula. Unfortunately some newly formed fistulas fail ...

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Type 2 diabetes is becoming more common in children

The number of children being diagnosed with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes is rising, but new cases of type 2 diabetes, the form associated with being overweight, has risen five-fold in about five years. New analysis in this NIHR-supported study suggest that type 2 diabetes now accounts for up to a third of ...

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Tenofovir reduces mother-to-child hepatitis B transmission

Giving pregnant women with hepatitis B the drug tenofovir reduced the likelihood of passing the infection on to their baby by about 80% and did not have any adverse impact on mother or child. Hepatitis B often doesn't cause any obvious symptoms in adults and typically passes in a few months without treatment, but in ...

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