Evidence

Alerts

The latest important research summarised

Short summaries of the latest health research presented in plain English to promote use of research by all members of society.

Alert

Strong patient-staff relationships are key to reducing conflict in high-security psychiatric hospitals

Aggression and conflict are common in high-security psychiatric hospitals. High-risk interventions – including restraint, seclusion and tranquilisers – are sometimes used to manage violence. De-escalation is an alternative approach which may help staff respond to aggression without using these restrictive interventions. It trains staff to recognise and understand the early signs of agitation and irritation. ...

Alert

Lonely young people have an increased risk of mental health problems years later: research suggests lockdown could have a long term effect

Loneliness and social isolation increase the long-term risk of depression and anxiety in children and teenagers, a recent review of research suggests. It included studies carried out before the current pandemic and found that negative impacts on mental health were evident up to nine years later. Children and teenagers rely on close friendships more than ...

Alert

Young offenders with undiagnosed language problems are twice as likely to reoffend within a year

Young people convicted of a criminal offence are much more likely to have another conviction within 12 months if they have an undiagnosed language problem. People with developmental language disorder (DLD) have difficulty expressing themselves verbally or understanding what is said to them. The disorder often starts in early childhood but persists into adulthood and ...

Alert

Laser surgery for an enlarged prostate is no more effective than standard surgery

Two procedures to treat men with enlarged prostates are both effective, new research has shown. A benign enlarged prostate is not cancer and is not usually a serious threat to health. But it is common in men over 50 and some need surgery to treat troublesome urinary symptoms caused by the growing prostate. The most ...

Alert

An innovative swallowable sponge detects Barrett's oesophagus in people with heartburn, study shows

Detection of a pre-cancerous throat condition called Barrett’s oesophagus can be improved with the use of an innovative swallowable sponge and laboratory test, a large multicentre trial found. Heartburn, caused by acid reflux from the stomach up into the gullet (oesophagus), is common among people visiting their GP. It is usually treated with acid suppressants. ...

Alert

Men who have sex with men are less likely to use drugs to prevent HIV if they are young, unemployed or have a low disposable income, research finds

The use of drugs to reduce the transmission of HIV has increased substantially in recent years. New research found that two in five men who have sex with men (MSM) attending sexual health clinics in London and Brighton had taken drugs as a precaution in case they encounter the virus. At the time of the ...

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First-time mothers need clear and consistent information about the care they can expect after giving birth

The first six to eight weeks after giving birth is an important time in a woman’s transition into motherhood. But currently little is known about what pregnant women expect, or how well informed they feel in advance about the care they will receive during this postnatal period. The current national guidance in England covers the ...

Alert

Increased awareness of developmental disorders can reduce stigma, research in Ethiopia finds

Family and community support is vital to offset the damaging effects of stigma associated with autism, intellectual disability and other developmental disorders, a study in Ethiopia shows. Without such help, children with these disorders and their families are more likely to struggle, and to isolate themselves from society. Negative reactions to children with developmental disorders ...

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Physiotherapist-led exercise eases shoulder pain but ultrasound guidance for injections makes no difference, study finds

A large trial of interventions for people with shoulder pain showed that they benefitted more from personalised exercise programmes supervised by physiotherapists than from an exercise leaflet and standard advice. It also showed that guiding shoulder injections using ultrasound provided no added benefit over the usual, non-guided approach to these injections. Pain associated with structures ...

Alert

Pregnancy loss leads to post-traumatic stress in one in three women

Almost one in three women develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after early pregnancy loss, a new study shows. For some, signs of PTSD, anxiety and depression are still evident nine months later. Early pregnancy losses are common, but the consequences and psychological impact are often overlooked. Current care varies, but most women receive no formal ...

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