Enabling active travel and public transport
Enabling active travel and public transport
What this section covers
This section covers NIHR funded research into the impact of active travel and public transport on physical activity and maintaining a healthy weight. Active travel means making everyday journeys in physically active ways, such as by walking or cycling, instead of using cars, motorbikes or other motorised transport (Public Health England). Public transport is often linked to active travel, since people walk or cycle to access it.
What’s the context?
- The growth in road transport has contributed to reducing physical activity and increasing obesity. Switching more journeys to active travel promises to improve health, quality of life, the environment, air pollution, and local productivity, as well as reduce costs to the public purse (Public Health England).
- Many people in the UK are not meeting physical activity guidelines, particularly in deprived areas. Walking or cycling as part of a daily routine is one of the most effective ways to increase physical activity (Public Health England).
- The COVID-19 pandemic created a national ‘moment of change’ to promote cycling and walking (Department for Transport). In 2020, the number of people cycling on public highways was higher than any year since the 1960s (Minister of State for Transport). A drive to cement these behaviours underpinned the government’s vision for cycling and walking (Department for Transport). New working patterns, with a move to hybrid working, may present different challenges and opportunities for active travel.
What does NIHR research tell us?
Active travel (walking or cycling) to school can lower children’s BMI
A study tracked more than 8,000 schoolchildren for several years and found that those who switched to walking and cycling to school between the ages of 7 and 14 had healthier body weights (BMI) than those who continued to travel by car. This was seen particularly in children from the most deprived areas.(1)(NIHR Alert)
Improved walking and cycling paths increase active travel, particularly when they connect to transport hubs
Improving the quality and quantity of walking and cycling paths can increase active travel and the number of people meeting physical activity guidelines. New walking routes encouraged less active people to take up walking for transport,(2) reduced health inequalities, and provided value for money.(3)(NIHR Alert) The greatest uptake of active travel was on routes: near public transport hubs; where walking and cycling use was low; in areas of deprivation and high population density.(3) Routes were more likely to be successful when accessibility and connectivity (convenience) were taken into account.(4) For example, people living close to a new bus network and traffic-free pedestrian and cycle paths were more likely to increase their active travel and cycling time, and decrease their car trips. This is compared to people living further from the bus route. People who were less active originally were most likely to change their behaviour and increase their active travel.(5)
Improving safety and the experience of cycling and walking influences the use of routes
Successful programmes to promote walking and cycling address the issues of traffic and personal safety, and improve the experience of walking or cycling.(4) For example, a new or improved bridge or tunnel can increase the use of walking or cycling paths in deprived areas. These features may not appeal to everyone; the number of women cyclists was less likely to increase where there were bridges or tunnels, possibly because these features reduce natural surveillance and feelings of safety.(3)
School cycle training does not increase the likelihood of cycling in adolescence
Offering cycle training in primary school has not been found to increase the likelihood of cycling in adolescence (13 to 15 years). Cycling has been found to be more common among teenage boys than girls, in rural areas, and in areas with higher levels of adult cycling.(6)
Encouraging the use of public transport can support a healthy weight and increase physical activity
Use of public transport is associated with a lower BMI in adults,(7) and switching from private car to public transport for school journeys has been associated with lower percentage body fat in children.(1) Free bus passes for people over 60, (8) including those from minority ethnic groups (9) can promote active travel. But free bus travel for young people (12 to 17 years) in London did not significantly increase active travel. However, teens reported wider benefits, such as more independent travel and social inclusion.(10)
- Public Health England has published a guide of practical actions for local authorities to promote active travel.
- The Department of Transport has produced guidance for local authorities on promoting an active return to work.
- Active Travel Info is funded by the Department of Transport and provides information to help local authorities build a business case for investment.
- NICE quality standard (QS183) encourages local authorities to prioritise pedestrians, cyclists and people who use public transport when developing and maintaining connected travel routes.
- NICE public health guideline (PH41) encourages people to walk or cycle more, either for travel or recreation.
- The Department for Transport set out the government’s current cycling and walking plan.
- Sport England offers tools and resources to support active travel.
NIHR research in progress
- How does new walking and cycling infrastructure support a shift to active travel among commuters and older adults in market towns? (11)
- Do new low traffic neighbourhoods increase active travel? (12)
- What impact did emergency travel schemes have on active travel and social distancing during the COVID-19 pandemic? The schemes included pedestrianised high streets, new cycle lanes, low traffic neighbourhoods and the temporary closure of roads outside schools. The research will inform decisions over whether to make the schemes permanent. (13)
NIHR studies included in this section
- Laverty AA, Hone T, Goodman A, Kelly Y, Millett C. Associations of active travel with adiposity among children and socioeconomic differentials: a longitudinal study. BMJ Open. 2021 Jan 1;11(1):e036041.
- Panter J, Ogilvie D. Can environmental improvement change the population distribution of walking? J Epidemiol Community Health. 2017 Jun 1;71(6):528–35.
- Le Gouais A, Panter JR, Cope A, Powell JE, Bird EL, Woodcock J, et al. A natural experimental study of new walking and cycling infrastructure across the United Kingdom: The Connect2 programme. J Transp Health. 2021 Mar 1;20:100968.
- Panter J, Guell C, Humphreys D, Ogilvie D. Can changing the physical environment promote walking and cycling? A systematic review of what works and how. Health Place. 2019 Jul 1;58:102161.
- Ogilvie D, Panter J, Guell C, Jones A, Mackett R, Griffin S. Health impacts of the Cambridgeshire Guided Busway: a natural experimental study. Public Health Res. 2016 Jan 11;4(1):1–154.
- McKay A, Goodman A, van Sluijs E, Millett C, Laverty AA. Cycle training and factors associated with cycling among adolescents in England. J Transp Health. 2020 Mar;16:100815.
- Patterson R, Webb E, Hone T, Millett C, Laverty AA. Associations of Public Transportation Use With Cardiometabolic Health: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Am J Epidemiol. 2019 Apr;188(4):785–95.
- Laverty AA, Webb E, Vamos EP, Millett C. Associations of increases in public transport use with physical activity and adiposity in older adults. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2018 Apr 2;15:31.
- Patterson R, Webb E, Mindell JS, Millett C, Laverty AA. Ethnic group differences in impacts of free bus passes in England: A national study. J Transp Health. 2018 Dec;11:1–14.
- Green J, Steinbach R, Jones A, Edwards P, Kelly C, Nellthorp J, et al. On the Buses: A mixed method evaluation of the impact of free bus travel for young people on the public health. Public Health Res. 2014 Feb 18;2(1):1–206.
- Campbell R. Proposal for evaluating Oxfordshire Active Travel intervention (PHIRST INSIGHT). NIHR Funding and Awards Search Website. [cited 2022 Mar 11].
- Aldred R. The Low Traffic Neighbourhoods in London: a mixed-methods study of benefits, harms, and experiences. NIHR Funding and Awards Search Website. [cited 2022 Mar 11].
- Adamson A. An Evaluation of COVID19 Public Spaces Management in South Gloucestershire (PHIRST FUSION). NIHR Funding and Awards Search Website. [cited 2022 Mar 11].
- Alert | Preventing childhood obesity requires a shift in focus away from individual behaviours towards the wider environment
- Alert | Better pathways promote physical activity and can decrease health inequalities
- Alert | People in the most deprived groups were least likely to take part in the exercise referral scheme, study finds
- Alert | Digital games, apps and e-therapy show promise for helping children manage obesity, anxiety and other long-term conditions
- Alert | Working in groups with ongoing support is valued by people with severe obesity trying to lose weight
- Alert | Diet and physical activity interventions targeting children and youth have different, yet small, effects on preventing obesity
- Alert | Schoolchildren who switch to walking or cycling may have a healthier body weight
- Alert | Cycling to work lowers risk of illness and death compared to driving
- Themed review | Moving Matters – Interventions To Increase Physical Activity
- Alert | Most patients welcome advice from GPs on changing their behaviour to improve health