Evidence
Alert

Diagnosis of delirium in hospitals can be improved by the 4 A’s test

A new shorter test for delirium appears helpful in assessing older people in hospital who may have the condition. A normal score on the 4 A’s test effectively rules out delirium while an abnormal score is reasonably useful for detecting the condition. People detected by the test would still need a full assessment to confirm ...

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Diet and physical activity interventions targeting children and youth have different, yet small, effects on preventing obesity

Obesity prevention interventions which include both diet and physical activity may reduce the risk of obesity in pre-school children. Once at school, physical activity appears to be more effective for weight loss than diet alone. Resulting weight loss form any intervention, if any, has been very small with unclear benefits to the individual or population. ...

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Transcatheter aortic valve implantation may be an option for patients with aortic stenosis at lower surgical risk

Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI), the less-invasive procedure, may be associated with a reduced risk of death and stroke for up to two years when compared with surgical aortic valve replacement for adults with severe narrowing of the aortic valve, irrespective of the level of surgical risk. TAVI is already an established procedure for those ...

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Text message reminders increase attendance at NHS health checks

Sending text messages reminding people to book their NHS health check following their invitation letter increases attendance. There is little evidence to support pre-notification text messages telling people an invitation would soon be sent. NHS health checks are offered to adults aged 40 to 74 years. Identification and management of cardiovascular risk factors has been ...

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A lower drink-drive limit in Scotland is not linked to reduced road traffic accidents as expected

Lowering the drink-drive blood alcohol limit in Scotland was not followed by reduced road traffic accidents, perhaps because of a lack of enforcement. While there was a 0.7% reduction in alcohol bought in pubs and restaurants after the new legislation (on-trade sales), there was no significant change in sales of alcohol from shops or supermarkets ...

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A temporary clot-catching filter inserted after major trauma does not prevent lung clots

In adults after major trauma who cannot safely be given anti-clotting drugs, placing a removable metal filter in a major vein to the heart (the inferior vena cava) within 3 days of admission does not reduce their chances of having a clot in their lungs (pulmonary embolus) within 90 days, compared with having no filter. ...

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Length of steroid course for childhood nephrotic syndrome makes little difference to later recurrences

For children with a first presentation of nephrotic syndrome, an extended sixteen-week treatment regimen with prednisolone does not reduce the risk of relapse compared with the standard eight-week course. Most children will experience a relapse with either regimen, but the longer course may delay it by a month or so which may, in turn, reduce ...

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Four-drug treatment for HIV offers no benefit over standard three-drug treatment

Quadruple drug therapy for people starting HIV treatment offers no benefit over the currently recommended triple therapy. Antiretroviral (anti-HIV) therapy is highly effective, with almost all treated individuals in the UK surviving as long as non-infected people. The courses now available mean those treated are usually unable to pass on the virus. There are several ...

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Exercise training improves physical capacity after lung cancer surgery

People who receive exercise training following surgery for lung cancer can walk about 57 metres further in six minutes than controls who did not exercise. After surgery like this to remove all or part of a lung, people typically manage about 500 metres in six minutes on the test, and anything above 20 metres is considered ...

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Surgery for a deviated nasal septum improves quality of life more than non-surgical approaches

Surgery for adults who have a deviation, or bend, in the wall running through the centre of their nose improves quality of life more than non-surgical alternatives. The benefit was maintained for at least two years. The surgery, a septoplasty, also improves airflow through the nose. The trial compared septoplasty to non-surgical alternatives, such as just ...

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