Evidence
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Non-invasive brain stimulation may improve outcomes for children with brain injury

Non-invasive brain stimulation may help improve limb function in children with motor disorders following brain injury, such as cerebral palsy or one-sided weakness. This is a relatively safe procedure where pads placed on the head deliver electric or magnetic currents, which are thought to activate the motor areas of the brain. This review evaluated 14 ...

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Antibiotics reduce complications after assisted vaginal delivery

Preventative antibiotics halve the risk of infection for women who have assisted vaginal delivery using forceps or suction-cup devices. About 10% of women receiving antibiotics develop an infection within six weeks of delivery compared with 20% of women who receive a placebo. Antibiotics are not routinely recommended for women undergoing assisted delivery as there hasn’t ...

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Routine engagement in end of life planning can improve health outcomes for people with heart failure

Interventions that encourage healthcare professionals to engage in advance care planning with heart failure patients can work more effectively than stand-alone training activities in improving health outcomes. Approaches that involve patients to change clinicians’ professional practice behaviours, the use of reminder systems and educational meetings may offer the best potential. There is no cure for ...

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Whole-body MRI is effective for identifying metastatic disease in colorectal cancer patients

Initial investigation which includes whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is as good as standard pathways for detecting metastatic disease in adults with newly diagnosed colorectal cancer. This NIHR-funded study also found that whole-body MRI reduces the number of investigations needed, the length of the staging process, and costs less than standard pathways. The treatment options ...

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Whole-body MRI scans are as accurate as standard imaging pathways for lung cancer staging

Using whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the initial investigation pathway is as good as standard pathways for detecting metastatic disease in adults with non-small-cell lung cancer. This NIHR-funded study also found that WB-MRI used for diagnosis and staging is quicker, cheaper and requires fewer other investigations than standard pathways. Although patients reported that having ...

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Mixed evidence shows some impact of mass media campaigns promoting tobacco control, physical activity and sexual health

Mass media campaigns have demonstrated effectiveness for promoting tobacco control, physical activity and sexual health. Most of the evidence relates to improving awareness of health risks or the availability of services. However, for those aimed at the risks associated with sedentary lifestyles, smoking or sexual behaviours, there are signs that the campaigns also achieved positive ...

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Pulmonary rehabilitation may modestly improve anxiety and depression in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Pulmonary rehabilitation for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) improves psychological symptoms modestly, compared with no intervention. Depression improves by about 2.5 points, and anxiety by 2.2 points on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (range 0 to 21). This review of 10 trials is the first to show that pulmonary rehabilitation – already known to ...

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Insights into the transfer between children’s and adults’ services for young people with selected long-term conditions

How young people with type 1 diabetes, autistic spectrum disorder and cerebral palsy experience the transition to adult services depends on their condition and locality. Adult and children’s services need to work together to ensure they are offering young people the sources of support and resilience they need. This NIHR-funded study found that children with ...

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Levetiracetam is a useful alternative to phenytoin in stopping prolonged epileptic seizures in children

Levetiracetam is as effective as phenytoin at stopping prolonged epileptic seizures in children. In this trial, levetiracetam stopped 70% of children convulsing compared with 64% for phenytoin within 35 to 45 minutes. Adverse events were similar. This combined with the fact levetiracetam may be easier to administer safely make it an important option. Most epileptic ...

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Routine use of progesterone does not prevent miscarriage

Progesterone did not affect the chance of live birth among women presenting with vaginal bleeding in the first 12 weeks of pregnancy. Live birth rates were 72% with placebo and 75% with progesterone, which is not a clinically or statistically important difference. Progesterone has been prescribed for threatened miscarriage in some centres since the 1950s, ...

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