Evidence
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Does an antibacterial milk protein reduce infection in premature babies?

Lactoferrin, a protein found in human and cows milk, does not appear to protect premature infants from late-onset infections. When given to babies born before 32 weeks, their risk of acquiring infections, such as sepsis, was virtually the same as those in the control group, about 30%. Late-onset infections, those occurring 72 hours or more ...

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Various drugs are effective and well-tolerated for generalised anxiety disorder

There are various drugs options for the treatment of generalised anxiety disorder, from different medication classes. This study found that most evidence was available for the serotonin and noradrenaline re-uptake inhibitors (SNRI) duloxetine and venlafaxine, the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) escitalopram, and the anti-epileptic pregabalin. All appear well-tolerated and reduce symptoms compared with placebo. ...

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One gram a day of omega-3 supplements does not reduce the risk of cancer or cardiovascular disease

A trial of omega-3 fatty acid supplements showed they have little or no effect on the risk of cancer or cardiovascular disease in the general population. The finding contradicts the widespread belief that these supplements at usual doses protect the heart. A large trial of 25,871 men and women in the United States compared the ...

Themed Review

Staffing on Wards: Making decisions about healthcare staffing

Download the PDF Summary The nature of patient needs and ward activity  is changing. Inpatients tend to be more ill than they used to be, many with complex needs often arising from multiple long-term conditions. At the same time, hospitals face the challenges of a shortage and high turnover of registered nurses. This review presents ...

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Having more registered nurses on general wards is linked to lower mortality

Higher registered nurse staffing levels are associated with lower mortality, and the fact that fewer vital sign observations are missed is the most likely explanation for this. Increasing registered nursing staff by an hour for each patient per day could reduce the risk of death by 3%. If the ratio of healthcare assistants to nurses ...

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C-reactive protein is not useful in diagnosing late-onset infection in newborns

The blood level of C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker indicating inflammation in the body, is not accurate enough alone to diagnose late-onset infection in newborn infants. Late-onset neonatal infection, occurring more than three days after birth, is potentially serious and is relatively common. Tests measuring the blood level of CRP are widely used by physicians ...

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Long-term exercise programmes reduce falls and injuries in older adults

Older people who participate in year-long exercise programmes fall less and are less likely to be injured if they do fall. Exercise does not increase or decrease their risk of hospitalisation. The people aged 60 or over (average age 73 years) who were included in this review took part in supervised training programmes. Typically, about ...

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Torn Achilles tendons have similar outcomes if treated with or without surgery

Outcomes for ruptured Achilles tendons appear similar irrespective of the choice of intervention. This systematic review and meta-analysis found that while the risk of re-rupture with corrective surgery was small at 2.3%, with conservative management (immobilisation in a cast), the rate was only 3.9%. The complication rate at 4.9% was three times higher in those ...

Collection

Management of Labour

Labour has three stages: The first stage is when the neck of the womb opens to 10cm dilated. The second stage is when the baby moves down through the vagina and is born. The third stage is when the placenta (afterbirth) is delivered. Labour and birth are intense and personal experiences.  Pregnancy can be a time of great anticipation and excitement but parents-to-be ...

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Cognitive behavioural therapy may help ease depression in the workplace

Workplace-based interventions for people with depressive symptoms are effective. This review of 16 trials looked at early stage interventions to prevent depressive symptoms from developing into more severe depressive illness. Both cognitive behavioural therapy and some non-cognitive behavioural therapy interventions, such as supervised exercise, worked equally well. Telephone and internet-based therapy worked better than face-to-face ...

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