Evidence
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Reducing street lighting doesn’t lead to more road traffic accidents or crime

This NIHR study found that reducing or adapting street lighting was not linked to more road traffic accidents or crime in the UK. Many local authorities have changed their street lighting in recent years – switching off entirely, switching off for part of the night, dimming, or changing to energy efficient LED bulbs – to ...

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Talking therapies may prevent relapse of depression

This review looked at how effective different psychological "talking" therapies were at preventing relapse of depression. It found that cognitive behavioural therapy, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy and interpersonal psychotherapy all reduced the risk of depression relapse over a year by 20 to 25% compared with a control treatment. There was further evidence that the effect for cognitive ...

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A hormone-releasing coil is best for relieving heavy periods

This Cochrane systematic review of trials found that a progesterone releasing coil device (mainly Mirena®) inserted in the womb was more effective at reducing heavy periods than taking oral tablets. The coil led to more minor side effects, but improved quality of life, compared with tablets. Surgical removal of the womb, hysterectomy, was more effective ...

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Designing successful telehealth interventions

This NIHR-funded review identified three general principles for designing effective telehealth programmes for people with long-term health conditions. First, the technologies need to help people living with disease to build effective relationships with doctors, nurses and others. Second, there needs to be a good fit between the technology and everyday routine of the patient. Thirdly, the ...

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Two drugs only partially helpful for pyoderma gangrenosum

This NIHR trial found no difference in the healing of pyoderma gangrenosum over six weeks in adults treated with prednisolone or ciclosporin. Pyoderma gangrenosum is a rare serious skin condition causing painful ulcers, and over half of ulcers had failed to heal after six months of either treatment. There were more serious side effects – ...

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Common migraine prevention treatments found to be equally effective

This review found that the main drugs used for preventing migraine were all effective compared with placebo or dummy treatment. The results were less clear cut when comparing drugs directly against each other as there were fewer trials. This review highlights the range of drugs used to prevent migraines, reflecting the number of possible treatments ...

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Bisphosphonates help prevent fractures in men with low bone density

This systematic review found that bisphosphonate drugs, taken for at least six months, improved bone density and lowered fracture risk in men with low bone density, compared with a placebo or supplements (calcium alone or with vitamin D). Bisphosphonates have been extensively researched for treating women with low bone density after the menopause, but this ...

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Giving obese pregnant women metformin had no effect on baby’s weight at birth

A large trial found that giving obese pregnant women the diabetes drug, metformin, to prevent heavier babies, had no effect compared with an inactive dummy tablet. The trial was funded by the NIHR and Medical Research Council, and was the first to give metformin, a diabetes drug that is safe in pregnancy, to pregnant women ...

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Disc replacement is better than fusion in people needing surgery for neck disc disease

As in the back, discs in the neck can degenerate and cause pain and nerve damage from pressure by the disc, in this case for cervical nerves. In severe cases, where nerves are affected surgery is performed to relieve pain and numbness. This systematic review of trials found that replacing a damaged disc with an artificial substitute ...

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Schools can provide valuable help for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

This series of NIHR-funded systematic reviews found that some things schools do (interventions) can help children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. These were grouped into 15 main approaches including reward and punishment, skills training and self-management, creative-based therapies, such as music therapy, and structured physical activity. These reviews covered different strategies to change behaviour other ...

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