A 12-week weight management programme for men, centred on football, achieved 4.9kg weight loss at 12 months. Modest weight loss of 2.9kg was maintained at 3.5 years.
Rates of overweight and obesity are higher for men than women in the UK, and there is little evidence that interventions are effective in the longer term. This NIHR-funded study followed 488 of 747 men (65%), average age 47 years, originally allocated to a programme of behavioural advice and football training with a professional coach or to a waiting list control. In this follow-on study, the control group also received the intervention after 12 months.
Improvements in self-reported physical activity and diet were also maintained. The programme was estimated to be an effective use of NHS resources. It indicates that tailored programmes can work beyond the trial setting.
Evidence for what components of this programme were linked to its success could help design other interventions that don’t involve football.
Why was this study needed?
Being overweight or obese is an ongoing public health concern. In 2016, obesity prevalence in the UK was similar in both genders (26% of men and 27% of women), but more men were overweight (40% compared with 30% of women). The peak prevalence of obesity is among middle-aged and older adults, 45-75 years in men and 45-84 in women.
Multicomponent interventions centred on physical activity, diet and behaviour change are known to achieve short-term weight loss. But there’s little evidence whether weight loss is maintained long-term, particularly for men, and often weight is gradually put back on.
In 2011, the Football Fans in Training (FFIT) trial recruited 747 overweight/obese men (BMI ≥28kg/m2) aged 35-65 years. They were allocated to a 12-week programme of coach-led physical activity and dietary education delivered at 13 Scottish football clubs or put on a waiting list to act as a control. At 12 months the intervention group achieved 4.94kg greater weight loss. This follow-up study looked at whether weight loss was maintained over a longer period.
What did this study do?
This cohort involved 488 men (65%) from this trial who completed re-assessments at 3.5 years. This comprised 62% of the intervention group and 68% of the control group. Compared with participants, men who did not complete follow-up had slightly higher baseline weight, BMI, waist circumference and blood pressure, were slightly younger and less likely to be in paid employment.
The waitlist control group had the option of taking part in the FFIT programme after the initial 12 month trial period. Therefore there is no comparison group who received no intervention for this longer follow-up. Twelve-month outcomes for the waitlist group who completed the programme under non-randomised conditions were not available separately.
What did it find?
- The original intervention group and the waitlist control group who received the intervention at 12 months both sustained weight loss out to 3.5 years. The intervention group lost 2.9kg (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.78 to 4.02) or 2.5% body weight by 3.5 years. The control group lost 2.7kg (95% CI 1.65 to 3.77) or 2.4% body weight.
- The number of men who had achieved at least 5% weight loss since the start of the trial was also similar between groups: 32.2% of the intervention group and 31.8% of the control group.
- Both groups showed sustained improvements in self-reported physical activity and diet from 12 months to 3.5 years. Both groups showed improvement in levels of moderate physical activity and reduced intake of fatty and sugary food, red meat and alcohol. Neither showed a difference in intake of fruit and vegetables or vigorous physical activity.
- The FFIT programme was estimated to cost on average £2,450 per participant including programme costs and self-reported use of healthcare resources. The programme was estimated to be cost-effective at £10,770 to £15,300 per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained at 3.5 years, and £1,790 to £2,200 per QALY over the course of the person’s lifetime.
What does current guidance say on this issue?
The NICE 2014 guideline on weight management recommends referring overweight and obese adults to a lifestyle weight management programme that address diet, activity and behaviour change. NICE suggests that programmes are tailored to support the needs of different groups, such as men.
Programmes are advised to set weight loss goals for the end of the programme and for one year. However, they should also stress the importance of maintaining new dietary habits and physical activity levels in the long term to prevent weight regain and discuss strategies to overcome any difficulties in maintaining new behaviours.
What are the implications?
This study supports the value of multicomponent interventions that are tailored to the needs and preferences of specific groups. It adds to the evidence that these creative programmes can promote sustained weight loss in the longer term and give value for money.
As the authors state, the programme was ‘gender-sensitised’ to the male environment of football clubs. It would be helpful to look at how the approach and principles of behaviour change could be adapted for people who don’t have a keen interest in football.
Citation and Funding
Gray CM, Wyke S, Zhang R, et al. Long-term weight loss trajectories following participating in a randomized controlled trial of a weight management programme for men delivered through professional football clubs: a longitudinal cohort study and economic evaluation. Int J Behave Nutr Phys Act. 2018;15(1):60.
This study was funded by the National Institute for Health Research Public Health Research Programme (project number 13/99/32).
Gray CM, Wykes S, Zhang R et al. Long-term weight loss following a randomised controlled trial of a weight management programme for men delivered through professional football club: the football fans in training follow-up study. Public Health Res. 2018;6(9).
NICE. Weight management: lifestyle services for overweight or obese adults. PH53. London: National Institute for Health and Care Excellence; 2014.
NHS Digital. Statistics on obesity, physical activity and diet – England 2018. London: NHS Digital; 2018.
Produced by the University of Southampton and Bazian on behalf of NIHR through the NIHR Dissemination Centre