Evidence
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The benefits of commonly used blood pressure and cholesterol lowering treatment can last 16 years

Fewer deaths from stroke had occurred in people who had high blood pressure treated with amlodipine, a calcium-channel blocker, compared to atenolol, 10 years after the end of a large trial. People with high blood pressure who took statins were less likely to die from cardiovascular diseases, such as heart disease or stroke than those ...

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Combining mirtazapine with other antidepressants is not effective for treatment-resistant depression

Adding mirtazapine to first-line antidepressants for adults with treatment-resistant depression does not improve symptoms when compared with placebo (dummy pills). People taking mirtazapine are more likely to experience side effects, and stop taking their treatment. This NIHR-funded trial took place in 106 general practices in England, recruiting 480 adults with mild to severe depression. All ...

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Adding low dose theophylline to inhaled corticosteroids does not reduce COPD exacerbations

Taking low-dose theophylline tablets in addition to inhaled corticosteroids did not significantly reduce chronic obstructive pulmonary disease flare-ups (exacerbations). This NIHR funded study found that people taking the combination and those taking an inhaled steroid had the same number of exacerbations - just over two per year. People who experience frequent exacerbations are often prescribed ...

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Thyroid hormone treatment does not help adults with mildly abnormal thyroid tests

There appears to be no benefit from treating adults with subclinical hypothyroidism. Treatment has no effect on quality of life or symptoms compared with placebo or no treatment. Thyroid function tests are commonly performed in general practice for patients who present with a range of symptoms, including fatigue or tiredness. When subclinical hypothyroidism is detected, ...

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Antidepressants do not help treat depression in people living with dementia

Antidepressants do not reduce symptoms of depression in people with dementia compared with placebo (dummy pills). Measured 6 to 13 weeks after starting the treatment, there is little or no difference in participants’ symptoms, but an increased chance of unwanted side effects. The review did not identify enough data to determine if antidepressants have an ...

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Home-based cardiac rehabilitation for heart failure has high rates of participation

Home-based cardiac rehabilitation for people with heart failure improves quality of life at 12 months compared with usual care. Among those allocated to rehabilitation, 90% remained in the programme – more than double average attendance rate for hospital-based rehabilitation. The average cost was estimated at £418 per participant which is within the National Health Service ...

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Repeat thyroid function tests for healthy older people are not needed

Older adults with normal thyroid function or subclinical thyroid dysfunction show notable long-term stability of their thyroid hormone levels. This suggests that it is safe for GPs not to routinely retest older adults unless they have risk factors or develop clinical symptoms of overt thyroid dysfunction. Over five years, about 0.2% older adults with normal ...

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People leaving hospital after medical illness do not benefit from extended clot reducing treatment

Taking rivaroxaban after discharge from hospital does not significantly reduce the risk of venous thromboembolism, either blood clots in large veins or of dying from clots travelling to the lungs. People who are hospitalised with conditions such as heart failure and stroke are at an increased risk of blood clots. This risk is further increased ...

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Pelvic floor muscle training can improve symptoms of urinary incontinence

Two-thirds of women with any type of urinary incontinence who have pelvic floor muscle training see improvement or cure compared with only a third of women who receive no treatment or inactive treatments. It is even more effective for women with stress incontinence, with three-quarters of women reporting improvement or resolution of symptoms, such as ...

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Benzodiazepines may increase length of stay and chance of delirium in intensive care

Benzodiazepines given during mechanical ventilation in intensive care could increase the risk of a longer hospital stay and delirium compared to other sedatives. A range of sedatives are used to reduce psychological distress in critically ill patients, but prior to this study, it was not clear which drugs are most effective. This systematic review looked ...

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