Evidence
Alert

Cement injections to treat spinal compression fractures from osteoporosis can reduce short term pain

Injecting cement into osteoporotic spinal fractures within six weeks reduces pain in the first few months and disability six months later. The trial was undertaken in people aged over 60 years and compared the one-off injection to a simulated dummy procedure. The procedure, called vertebroplasty, aims to stabilise the collapsed vertebra and prevent further collapse. ...

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Young people often have negative views of sex and relationship education

Sex and relationship education in schools is intended to safeguard children from harmful relationships and promote sexual health. This review of 55 qualitative studies, mainly from the UK, suggests the classes do neither and may be failing to prepare, protect or engage young people. Most studies covered secondary school sex and relationship education for pupils ...

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Self-testing kits for HPV could be a useful option to tackle low cervical screening rates in young women

Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) self-sampling kits and the opportunity to book appointments had the largest effect in improving cervical screening uptake for those not responding to initial prompts. However, uptake improved only slightly from 27% to 30%, when the kit was sent. A survey of non-attenders showed they value the convenience and privacy of self-testing. ...

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Behavioural and drug treatment together help those with lung disease stop smoking

Smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD) given drug treatment alongside behavioural therapy were more than twice as likely to stop smoking by six months as those given behavioural treatment alone. There was also some evidence that high intensity behavioural treatment is more effective than usual care or lower intensity therapy. This review identified a ...

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Vitamin D supplements can reduce risk of asthma attacks

People with mild to moderate asthma experience fewer severe asthma attacks if they take vitamin D supplements. This review found that the average number of asthma attacks was equivalent to about one every four years in those taking vitamin D, compared to nearly one every two years in those taking a placebo. Half as many ...

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Nurses lack confidence in escalating or identifying children at risk of abuse and neglect

On the face of it, nurses are well placed to safeguard children, but asking them about their experiences reveals barriers which hinder that role. The research points towards areas where support could help nurses fulfil their legal and ethical duties better. In a review of published qualitative research, including surveys, interviews and focus groups, nurses ...

Collection

Pandemic flu

Every winter, many of us will get the flu. Most people will get better after a few days, but for certain vulnerable people, it can have serious consequences, including pneumonia. The prevailing strain of virus changes a little every year and an annual programme of immunisation, with a fresh vaccine, is conducted during the autumn ...

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Simple bedside check for nasogastric tube positioning is cost effective and prevents deaths

In adults who need a nasogastric tube for a short time, pH testing was the best initial approach followed by X-ray confirmation if pH testing wasn’t successful. pH testing was four times less expensive than X-ray confirmation and when used in sequence both were cost effective uses of NHS resources. Nasogastric tubes are used to ...

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Infant diets that include egg or peanut products appear to reduce food allergies

Certain allergenic foods introduced to an infant’s diet while weaning appear to reduce the chance of developing food allergies. This high quality review, including studies published this year, suggests that historical recommendations to delay the introduction of peanut and other allergenic foods to infant child’s diet in the first year of life may have been ...

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Bedside tracheostomy may be at least as good as traditional surgical techniques

Bedside tracheostomy procedures in intensive care units were at least as good as surgical tracheostomies, usually done in theatre. A tracheostomy creates a hole in the windpipe (trachea) and is one of the most common procedures performed in intensive care to help critically ill patients breathe when they are connected to ventilators. Surgical tracheostomies access ...

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