Evidence
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Rivaroxaban plus aspirin may reduce heart attack and strokes in people with peripheral arterial disease, but with an added risk of bleeding

People with peripheral arterial disease who took rivaroxaban plus aspirin daily over an average of 21 months reduced their risk of cardiovascular death, heart attack or stroke from seven to five in every 100 people treated compared with those given aspirin alone. The rivaroxaban plus aspirin group also reduced their risk of major limb problems ...

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Takeaways linked to increased cardiovascular risk factors and obesity in children

Children who eat takeaways once or more each week have more body fat and higher low-density lipoprotein (LDL) “bad” cholesterol levels than those who never or hardly ever eat them. Their diets were also higher in fat and lower in protein and calcium. This cross-sectional study looked in depth at eating habits and risk markers ...

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Type 2 diabetes can be reversed with a low-calorie diet

Nearly half of people given a formula replacement diet of 830 calories per day for three to five months, followed by food reintroduction, went into remission from type 2 diabetes. They were supported to achieve and maintain weight reduction by primary care nurses or dieticians. This trial involved 298 adults who had been diagnosed with ...

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A school-based lifestyle intervention didn’t help children avoid unhealthy weight gain

The Healthy Lifestyle Programme delivered to 9-10-year-old school children did not reduce their weight over the course of two years. Around a third remained overweight or obese, the same as in schools that followed the standard syllabus. This trial, funded by the NIHR, assigned schools across Devon to follow a lifestyle programme in Year five. ...

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Delayed umbilical cord clamping reduces hospital mortality for preterm infants

Delays to clamping the umbilical cord of about a minute can reduce hospital mortality for preterm infants by around 32%. Delayed clamping also reduced the proportion of infants needing a blood transfusion by 10%. This review adds more precise data on survival from new trials including a large Australian trial (over 1,600 babies) to a ...

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Uncertain benefits of BNP blood tests to monitor heart failure treatment

In specialist clinics, using B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) blood levels to guide treatment in people with chronic heart failure shows promise but did not improve survival for all groups. In this review, the benefit was only seen in patients aged less than 75, who survived an extra 1.5 years on average, and possibly those with ...

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Quality improvement collaboratives can improve clinical processes and patient outcomes

Quality improvement collaboratives (QICs) were largely effective across a wide range of healthcare problems and settings. Of the 64 studies included in this systematic review, 53 showed improvement in some of the healthcare processes and patient outcomes that they investigated. A small number of studies also showed that collaboratives were cost-effective, and the improvements were ...

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Being overweight or having diabetes are both linked to cancer

For western high-income countries such as the UK, an estimated 15% to 16% of cancers could be avoided by preventing diabetes, obesity or excess weight (defined as a Body Mass Index [BMI] greater than 25). A high BMI was responsible for almost twice as many cancers as diabetes. Around 5.6% of cancers globally in 2012 ...

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Self-testing kits increase overall HIV testing uptake in men who have sex with men

Frequency of HIV testing in men who have sex with men may be increased by one additional test in a six month period when self-testing kits are used. Self-testing kits allow people to collect their finger-prick or saliva sample, perform the test and interpret the result themselves. This global study found that first-time testers made ...

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Direct acting oral anticoagulants likely to be better than warfarin for people taking them for atrial fibrillation

In people with atrial fibrillation needing anticoagulant treatment, deaths were fewer in those who had direct acting oral anticoagulants compared with warfarin. The picture is less clear for the risk of stroke and complications such as bleeding in the brain or gut. Apixaban had the best efficacy and safety profile and was cost-effective compared with ...

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